This nationwide research was carried out in 2003 in the three sectors. The industrial areas covered gari processing; shea butter extraction; palm oil extraction; akpeteshie brewery; soap production; blacksmithing; pito brewery; bakeries; fish/meat smoking; tobacco; brick and tiles; sawmills and furniture assembly. The commercial areas included chop bars (traditional restaurants); restaurants; kenkey sellers and street sellers. The institutional kitchens were boarding schools; hospitals; military and police barracks, prisons and immigration quarters.


A total of 2.9m tons of fuel wood; 0.04m tons of charcoal (wood fuel) and 0.02m tons of LPG m is consumed annually. In the industrial sector, akpeteshie was the highest consumer of fuel wood.

More than 570,000 persons are engaged in economic activities that depend on wood fuel and about 85% are women. Among the users, majority is above 40years and 42% have no formal education.